Understanding Tolerance, Physical Dependence, and Addiction
The most appropriate analgesic regimen for some patients may include the use of opioids as a component of pain management. Opioids may be considered for pain severe enough to require an opioid when alternative treatments are inadequate and when the benefits of opioids are expected to outweigh the risks. Before prescribing opioids, it is essential for clinicians to screen patients for risk of opioid-related aberrant behaviors using validated tools. It is also essential to differentiate among opioid tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction, and as to how these conditions may present clinically.
This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from the Opioid Analgesic REMS Program Companies. Please see https://ce.opioidanalgesicrems.com/RpcCEUI/rems/pdf/resources/List_of_RPC_Companies.pdf for a listing of REMS Program Companies. This activity is intended to be fully compliant with the Opioid Analgesic REMS education requirements issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Differentiate among tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction.
Identify characteristics of an opioid-tolerant patient.
Oscar A. de Leon-Casasola, MD
Professor of Anesthesiology and Medicine
The Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo
Chief, Pain Medicine and Professor of Oncology
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Katherine E. Galluzzi, DO, CMD, FACOFP
Professor and Chair
Department of Geriatrics
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
The following relevant financial relationships have been disclosed by faculty, and all have been mitigated by Pri-Med Institute.
Oscar A. de Leon-Casasola, MD: Advisory Board for Esteve Pharma, Heron Therapeutics, Medtronic, Tremeau Pharma.
Katherine E. Galluzzi, DO, CMD, FACOFP: No relevant financial relationships to disclose.
Non-faculty contributors and others involved in the planning, development, and editing/review of the content have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.
AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Pri-Med Institute and Miller Medical Communications. Pri-Med Institute is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Pri-Med Institute designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Accreditation Standards of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners® (AANP) through the joint providership of Pri-Med Institute and Miller Medical Communications. Pri-Med Institute is accredited by the AANP as an approved provider of nurse practitioner continuing education. Provider Number 040308.
This activity is approved for 0.50 contact hour of continuing education, which includes 0.50 hour of pharmacology.
MOC Credit Information
Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 0.50 Medical Knowledge MOC point in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.
Instructions for Obtaining Credit
Once you have completed the activity, please click the "next" button to advance to the post-activity assessment. To complete this activity and claim credit, you must answer 2 out of the 2 questions correctly. If you are not successful after your first attempt, you will be given an opportunity to reflect upon the answer rationales and have the opportunity to review the educational content before proceeding. Once you have selected your answers, click the "submit" button to complete the evaluation questions and proceed to the claim credit screen. For PAs, the NCCPA accepts for Category 1 CME credit activities designated for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit.
State Licensure Requirements
This activity may satisfy topic-based CME/CE requirements for licensure. Please check with your state licensing board for their specific requirements and print this page as documentation as might be needed.
- 0.50 AANP Contact Hours
- 0.50 AANP Pharmacology Contact Hours
- 0.50 ABMS MOC
- 0.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
This course is offered through Pri-Med.
To take this course you will be redirected to Pri-Med's website. You must login or create an account with Pri-Med in order to complete this activity.
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