Travel-Related Illness: The “Emerging and Unpredictable Risk” of Japanese Encephalitis

This activity will emphasize the importance of a pretravel health consultation, timed in a way to optimize the impact of preventive measures, including recommended vaccinations and prophylactic medications. We will also discuss the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and factors that increase a traveler’s risk for acquiring the disease; review the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for evaluating individual risk and determining the need for JE vaccine; and discuss how to recognize JE in returning travelers.

Target Audience

Infectious Disease Specialists, Travel Health Medicine Clinicians, Pediatricians, Family and General Medicine Physicians, Occupational Medicine Specialists, NPs, and PAs working in these same specialties, Pharmacists, Nurses, and other clinicians who treat or care for patients with travel-related illnesses.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be better able to:

  • Describe the basic elements of a pretravel medical assessment and consultation for patients going abroad, including discussion of safe travel health practices and administration of needed vaccines
  • Summarize the signs and symptoms of Japanese encephalitis (JE), taking into account the spectrum of illness ranging from asymptomatic infection to non-localizing febrile illness to overt encephalitis
  • Evaluate the level of risk for JE among patients who are traveling from the United States and other Western countries to Asia and the Western Pacific, taking into consideration the country or countries of destination, duration of travel, areas to be visited, JE transmission season, and other factors
  • Incorporate JE vaccination into pretravel medical preparation whenever indicated
  • Recognize the signs and symptoms of possible JE in travelers returning from trips to Asia and the Western Pacific

Additional Information

State Relevance: 
District of Columbia
Course summary
Available credit: 
  • 1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.25 ANCC
Course opens: 
Course expires: 

Phyllis E. Kozarsky, MD

Professor Emerita
Department of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
Emory University
Atlanta, GA

Dr. Kozarsky has no financial relationships to disclose.

Davidson H. Hamer, MD
Professor of Global Health and Medicine
Boston University Schools of Public Health and Medicine
Boston, MA

Dr. Hamer is a consultant for WorldAware, Inc., Xenophon Strategies, Inc., and Valneva, USA, Inc. He is on the Advisory boards of WorldAware, Inc. and Valneva, USA, Inc. Dr. Hamer is also the Chief Medical Officer of Xenophon Strategies, Inc. and has done speaker engagements on COVID-19 for Gerson Lehrman Group, Inc.

Accredited Provider Disclosure

Haymarket Medical Education staff, additional planners, and reviewers in a position to control the content of this activity have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Conflict of Interest Disclosure Policy

In accordance with the ACCME Standards for Commercial Support, Haymarket Medical Education requires that individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. HME resolves all conflicts of interest to ensure independence, objectivity, balance, and scientific rigor in all its educational activities.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This IPCE activity may or may not discuss investigational, unapproved, or off-label use of drugs. Participants are advised to consult prescribing information for any products discussed. The information provided in this IPCE activity is for continuing medical education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a physician relative to diagnostic and treatment options for a specific patient's medical condition.

Joint Accreditation






In support of improving patient care, Haymarket Medical Education is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

IPCE Credits

Designation Statement





This activity was planned by and for the healthcare team, and learners will receive 1.25 Interprofessional Continuing Education (IPCE) credit for learning and change.

AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM

Designation Statement

Haymarket Medical Education designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

ANCC Contact Hour(s)

Designation Statement

This activity is awarded 1.25 contact hours. (based on 60 minutes per contact hour)

ACPE Continuing Pharmacy Education Credit

Designation Statement

This knowledge-based activity UAN# JA4008232-0000-20-009-H06-P qualifies for 1.25 CEUs of continuing pharmacy education credit.

AAPA Category 1 CME credit

Designation Statement

Haymarket Medical Education has been authorized by the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) to award AAPA Category 1 CME credit for activities planned in accordance with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1.25 AAPA Category 1 CME credits. Approval is valid until March 31, 2022. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation.

Nurse Practitioner Pharmacology credit

Designation Statement

This activity is designated for 1.25 CNE credit of which .50 is eligible for pharmacology credit. Participants should claim only credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Available Credit

  • 1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.25 ANCC
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Infectious Disease